I don’t recommend this technique any more. It’s quite complicated, and there’s a much simpler formulation of the idea that uses records-of-functions instead of type class instances. I’ve written up this formulation at the end of the blog post. I don’t recommend using the record-of-functions approach either, except in very narrow use cases, and with very constrained interfaces.
Side effects are awful. Database access, HTTP requests, file reading, talking to Redis, ah! Just so much gross IO code to shuffle around. There’s been a lot of effort to make things nicer. Using monads to track effects in the type is a great start, but it’s a little painful to work with without some good abstractions.
The mtl
library does a great job of making abstractions, but it has a big flaw:
every new monad you want to introduce incurs $O(n^2)$ instances that you need to write.
If you’re using Reader
, State
, Logger
, Http
, Database
, Email
, etc. (with special instances for testing/production/etc) then eventually this becomes too much of a burden.
More recently, the free monad approach and extensible-effects on top of it have become more popular. Free monads solve the $O(n^2)$ instance problem, and they offer the ability to introspect on the computation and perform optimizations on it. However, they have worse performance and are more complicated to implement. You either have to build a giant command functor with an equally complex interpreter, or you need to build many small languages and manage their combinations.
I’ve been working on a very promising pattern at the day job lately, and it’s worked out quite well thus far. It seems to solve the issues involved with a ridiculous proliferation of monad instances and the complications involved with free monads, while still giving most of the benefits of both.
mtl
style, revisitedIf you’re unfamiliar, the mtl
style of documenting effects is to use type classes to specify the effects of functions.
This has two main benefits:
Concretely, these two functions are incompatible:
foo :: StateT Int (Reader Char) Bool
foo = do
int <- get
char <- lift ask
pure False
bar :: ReaderT Char (State Int) Bool
bar = do
int <- lift get
char <- ask
pure True
Since we have to specify the lift
s, we can’t use them together.
The mtl
approach makes this possible:
foo :: (MonadState Int m, MonadReader Char m) => m Bool
foo = do
int <- get
char <- ask
pure False
bar :: (MonadState Int m, MonadReader Char m) => m Bool
bar = do
int <- get
char <- ask
pure True
The two functions are now easily interoperable! Nice.
We also didn’t have to type lift
a bunch, though truth be told, you just need the mtl
type classes in scope for that to work.
While this is nice, it’s not the real benefit of mtl
.
When you use an mtl
type class, you’re restricting yourself to the interface that the type class provides.
If your monad is StateT Int IO String
, then your monad can do any IO
it wants.
That’s no good! But if you know your function is MonadState Int m => m String
, you know it can only operate on the state.
This lets you swap implementations easily.
The PureScript compiler had an awesome demonstration, where they moved a WriterT
based logger to an IO
based instance (documented here) for big performance gains.
First, we’ll define a type class that represents an effect.
We’ll use a limited subset of Http
requests.
class Monad m => MonadHttp m where
get :: Url -> m ByteString
post :: ToJSON a => Url -> a -> m ByteString
type Url = String
We can easily make an instance for IO
, using wreq
:
instance MonadHttp IO where
get = fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.get
post url = fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.post url . toJson
Now, wherever we might have been using a function like makeRequest :: Something -> IO OtherThing
, we can now abstract that IO
into makeRequest :: MonadHttp m => SomeThing -> m OtherThing
.
We can make the change transparently, since IO
will still be inferred and used.
Plus, we have the assurance that we’re not going to be accessing the database or printing any output in our MonadHttp
functions.
Actually running HTTP requests in dev/test is boring. It’s slow, annoying, unreliable, etc. and we’d much rather run locally for faster tests and more reliable development.
We can easily create a mock implementation of MonadHttp
that does static returns:
newtype MockHttp a
= MockHttp
{ runMockHttp :: ReaderT HttpEnv IO a
} deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad,
MonadReader HttpEnv, MonadIO)
type HttpEnv = IORef HttpState
type HttpState = Map String ByteString
instance MonadHttp MockHttp where
get url = do
state <- ask >>= liftIO . readIORef
pure (Map.lookup url state)
post url body = do
ref <- ask
state <- liftIO (readIORef ref)
liftIO (writeIORef ref (Map.insert url (encode body) state))
pure "200 OK"
Now, with this instance, all of your MonadHttp
requests will be performed real fast (and dumb).
RankN
ClassyNow, how can we select which interpretation we want?
We obviously want IO
for production and MockHttp
for testing.
Ultimately, what we want is one of a family of functions, with the following generalized type:
forall app a. (forall m. MonadHttp m => m a) -> app a
And here, we see RankNTypes
come into play.
The two type variables app
and a
are both Rank1
types, since they’re introduced at the leftmost part of the function and are mentioned to the right of all the function arrows.
The m
type variable, on the other hand, is hidden – that’s a Rank2
type variable.
The variables app
and a
can both be chosen by the user to be whatever works, but we’re forcing the user to provide a value that not only satisfies the MonadHttp
type class, but that it can do no more than MonadHttp
. Consider this other signature:
forall app m a. MonadHttp m => m a -> app a
It looks really similar, but that m
is no longer hidden.
The user of the function can easily select IO
as the implementation, as that satisfies the type class requirements.
The user could then execute arbitrary IO actions, and the types haven’t helped much.
The Rank2
type above forces the user to only use MonadHttp
functions and actions.
We can safely specialize app
to IO
for now, which we’ll need in order to read IORef
s and do HTTP. So the functions we’re looking for, then are:
mockHttpRequests :: HttpEnv -> (forall m. MonadHttp m => m a) -> IO a
mockHttpRequests env action =
runReaderT (runMockHttp action) env
runHttpRequests :: (forall m. MonadHttp m => m a) -> IO a
runHttpRequests action = action
Now, here’s the last bit of the trick: You abstract out the implementations into a record.
data Services
= Services
{ runHttp :: forall a. (forall m. MonadHttp m => m a) -> IO a
}
which you store in your application environment:
type Application = ReaderT Services IO
Now, when you need to run HTTP requests, you can do:
foobar :: Application Int
foobar = do
service <- ask
lift $ runHttp service $ do
page <- get "http://wwww.google.com/"
post "http://secret-data" (collectData page)
pure (length page)
Then, while initializing your application, you can choose which environment to pass in:
runApplicationProd :: Application a -> IO a
runApplicationProd action = runReaderT action (Services runHttpRequests)
runApplicationTest :: Application a -> IO a
runApplicationTest action = do
ref <- newIORef initialHttpState
runReaderT action (Services mockHttpRequests)
Oh this is the best part!
reify :: (forall m. MonadHttp m => m a) -> Free HttpF a
reify = unFreeHttp
newtype FreeHttp a = FreeHttp { unFreeHttp :: Free HttpF a }
data HttpF next
= Get Url (ByteString -> next)
| forall a. FromJSON a => Post Url a next
instance MonadHttp FreeHttp where
get url = FreeHttp (liftF (Get url id))
post url body = FreeHttp (liftF (Post url body))
And now you can grab ahold of a Free monad representation of your AST.
Where a free monad seems like a great way to describe the effects of a computation, they seem to be more awkward at implementing requests. I’m inspired by Tomas Petricek’s Coeffects concept, which describes the context or environment of a computation as an indexed comonad. It seems like this approach allows you to request an environment comonad of interpreters for effects. By reifying these effects at the value level (a trick similar to Gabriel Gonzalez’s First Class Module Records), we avoid a lot of the problems with type classes and instances, while keeping the niceties of their abstractions.
An environment comonad is a essentially a really complicated way of saying “tuple”, and that’s left adjoint^{1} to a reader monad.
We get nice syntax sugar for monads and not comonads in Haskell, so ReaderT Services
provides a nice approach to packaging up your environment’s request context.
What’s next? Well, you might note that the Services
type was a little restricted. Indeed, the following is a bit nicer:
data Services g
= Services
{ runHttp :: forall a. (forall f. MonadHttp f => f a) -> g a
}
Which, hey… That’s just a natural transformation! Specifically, a monad morphism.
We can reify that type with ConstraintKinds
to get:
type InterpreterFor g eff = forall a. (forall f. eff f => f a) -> g a
We can read this as: You choose the eff
ect you want to interpret, and the monad you want to interpret it to.
But you can’t choose the underlying concrete f
, nor can you introspect on the a
s to do so.
If you allow TypeOperators
, then it even reads nicely, and we can replace our IO
services with:
data Services
= Services
{ runHttp :: IO `InterpreterFor` MonadHttp
}
(Not going to lie, that syntax really pleases my inner Rubyist)
And, in a final act of cutting IO
out of the program, we can parametrize that, yielding:
data Services eff
= Services
{ runHttp :: eff `InterpreterFor` MonadHttp
, runDatabase :: eff `InterpreterFor` MonadDatabase
, runEmails :: eff `InterpreterFor` MonadMandrill
-- etc...
}
along with a final Application
type that abstracts over that:
type Application = forall m. ReaderT (Services m) m
(credit to /u/Faucelme on reddit for that!)
Applications, then, are just an environment comonad of monad morphisms. More plainly, they’re a record of effect interpreters.
Thanks to /u/ElvishJerrico on Reddit who has implemented a Category
instance for these morphisms!
This is a great way to compose effects. The given example is copied here:
{-# LANGUAGE ConstraintKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE PolyKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances #-}
module Lib where
import Control.Category
import Control.Monad.Free
import Control.Monad.IO.Class
import Control.Monad.Reader
import Prelude hiding (id, (.))
import qualified Prelude as P
newtype Interpret c d = Interpret (forall n a. d n => (forall m. c m => m a) -> n a)
instance Category Interpret where
id = Interpret P.id
Interpret f . Interpret g = Interpret $ \h -> f (g h)
class Monad m => MonadHttp m where
httpGet :: String -> m String
newtype HttpApp a = HttpApp { runHttpApp :: IO a }
deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad, MonadIO)
instance MonadHttp HttpApp where
httpGet _ = return "[]" -- Should do actual IO
runIO :: Interpret MonadHttp MonadIO
runIO = Interpret $ \x -> liftIO $ runHttpApp x
newtype MockHttp m a = MockHttp { runMockHttp :: m a }
deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad)
instance MonadReader r m => MonadReader r (MockHttp m) where
ask = MockHttp ask
local f (MockHttp m) = MockHttp $ local f m
instance MonadReader String m => MonadHttp (MockHttp m) where
httpGet _ = ask
runMock :: Interpret MonadHttp (MonadReader String)
runMock = Interpret runMockHttp
class Monad m => MonadRestApi m where
getUserIds :: m [Int]
data RestApi a = GetUsers ([Int] -> a) deriving Functor
instance MonadRestApi (Free RestApi) where
getUserIds = liftF $ GetUsers id
runRestApi :: Interpret MonadRestApi MonadHttp
runRestApi = Interpret $ iterA go where
go (GetUsers f) = do
response <- httpGet "url"
f $ read response
runApplication :: Interpret MonadRestApi MonadIO
runApplication = runIO . runRestApi
mockApplication :: Interpret MonadRestApi (MonadReader String)
mockApplication = runMock . runRestApi
Don’t use this.
It’s complicated and overly boilerplatey.
Here’s the MonadHttp
effect code we ended up developing:
type InterpreterFor g eff = forall a. (forall f. eff f => f a) -> g a
class MonadHttp m where
get :: Url -> m ByteString
post :: ToJSON a => Url -> a -> m ByteString
data Services eff
= Services
{ runHttp :: eff `InterpreterFor` MonadHttp
}
To create one of these InterpreterFor
s, we have to make a type and define an instance:
newtype MockHttp a
= MockHttp
{ runMockHttp :: ReaderT HttpEnv IO a
} deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad,
MonadReader HttpEnv, MonadIO)
type HttpEnv = IORef HttpState
type HttpState = Map String ByteString
instance MonadHttp MockHttp where
get url = do
state <- ask >>= liftIO . readIORef
pure (Map.lookup url state)
post url body = do
ref <- ask
state <- liftIO (readIORef ref)
liftIO (writeIORef ref (Map.insert url (encode body) state))
pure "200 OK"
instance MonadHttp IO where
get = fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.get
post url = fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.post url . toJson
Instead, we will create a record-of-functions for the type class, and create two values:
data Http m = Http
{ get :: Url -> m ByteString
, post :: forall a. ToJSON a => Url -> a -> m ByteString
}
prodHttp :: Http IO
prodHttp = Http
{ get = fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.get
, post = \url -> fmap (view responseBody) . Wreq.post url . toJson
}
mockHttp :: IORef (Map String ByteString) -> Http IO
mockHttp env = Http
{ get = \url -> do
state <- readIORef env
pure (Map.lookup url state)
, post = \url body -> do
state <- liftIO (readIORef env)
liftIO (writeIORef env (Map.insert url (encode body) state))
pure "200 OK"
}
and we include the record of functions directly into Services
:
data Services eff = Services { http :: Http eff }
type Application eff = ReaderT (Services eff) eff
This gives us the same expressive power without having to deal with type classes, instances, and any of that other hassle. You construct plain values and pass them around.
I had initially written “isomorphic,” and was corrected by George Wilson who reminded me that tuple and reader form an adjunction, and that the isomorphism is between Kleisli (Reader r) and CoKleisli (Env r) ↩