To Overcome

Invert Your Mocks!

Mocking comes up a lot in discussions of testing effectful code in Haskell. One of the advantages for mtl type classes or Eff freer monads is that you can swap implementations and run the same program on different underlying interpretations. This is cool! However, it’s an extremely heavy weight technique, with a ton of complexity. I’ve recently gravitated to mostly doing everything in this sort of type:

newtype App a = App { unApp :: ReaderT AppCtx IO a }

It’s simple, has great error messages, and is easy to hook into existing libraries and frameworks by writing instances for either AppCtx or App. There’s a small cost: I have to call lift manually if I use an App a function inside of a Conduit or MaybeT block or similar. This is a fairly small cost to pay, all told, and the benefits in getting new developers up to speed on our projects is a big sell.

Now, how would I go about testing this sort of function?

doWork :: App ()
doWork = do
  query <- runHTTP getUserQuery
  users <- runDB (usersSatisfying query)
  for_ users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    let result = compute thing
    runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

If we have our mtl or Eff or OOP mocking hats on, we might think:

I know! We need to mock our HTTP, database, and Redis effects. Then we can control the environment using mock implementations, and verify that the results are sound!

Let’s step back and apply some more elementary techniques to this problem. I bet we can simplify our solution to testing.

Decomposing Effects

The first thing we need to do is recognize that effects and values are separate, and try to keep them as separate as possible. This is a basic principle of purely functional programming, and we would be wise to take it’s heed. Generally speaking, functions that look like:

doWork :: App ()

are not functional (in the “functional programming” sense). The only point to this is to run it for the effect it has on the outside world. We can tell just by looking at the type signature! So, let’s look at what it does, and how we might test it:

doWork :: App ()
doWork = do
  query <- runHTTP getUserQuery
  users <- runDB (usersSatisfying query)
  for_ users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    let result = compute thing
    runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

We get a bunch of stuff – inputs – that are acquired as an effect. We can make this a lot easier to test by simply taking those things as inputs.

doWork :: App ()
doWork = do
  query <- runHTTP getUserQuery
  users <- runDB (usersSatisfying query)
  doWorkHelper users

doWorkHelper :: [User] -> App ()
doWorkHelper users =
  for_ users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    let result = compute thing
    runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

Now, the only effect we need to mock for the doWorkHelper is getSomething and runRedis. But I’m not satisfied. We can get rid of the getSomething by factoring another helper out.

doWorkHelper :: [User] -> App ()
doWorkHelper users = do
  things'users <- for users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    pure (thing, user)
  lookMaNoInputs thing'users

lookMaNoInputs :: [(Thing, User)] -> App ()
lookMaNoInputs things'users =
  for_ things'users $ \(thing, user) -> do
    let result = compute thing
    runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

We’ve now extracted all of the “input effects.” Can we decompose this further? We can! Let’s inspect our output effect:

runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

It expects two things:

  1. The user’s Redis key
  2. The computed result from the thing.

We can prepare the redis key and computed result fairly easily:

businessLogic :: (Thing, User) -> (RedisKey, Result)
businessLogic (thing, user) = (userRedisKey user, compute result)

lookMaNoInputs :: [(Thing, User)] -> App ()
lookMaNoInputs users = do
  for_ (map businessLogic users) $ \(key, result) -> do
    runRedis (writeKey key result)

neat! We’ve isolated the core business logic out and now we can write nice unit tests on that business logic. All of the business logic has been excised from the effectful code, and we’ve reduced the amount of code we need to test.

Decomposition: Conduit-style

Streaming libraries like Pipes and Conduit are a great way to handle large data sets and interleave effects. They’re also a great way to decompose functions and provide “inverted mocking” facilities to your programs.

Most conduits look like this:

import Data.Conduit (runConduit, (.|))
import qualified Data.Conduit.List as CL

streamSomeStuff :: IO ()
streamSomeStuff = do
     $ conduitThatGetsStuff
    .| conduitThatProcessesStuff
    .| conduitThatConsumesStuff

You have some Source or Producer that initially provides things. This can be from a database action, an HTTP request, or from a file handle. Now, each part of this conduit can itself have many conduits inside of it:

conduitThatGetsStuff :: Producer IO ByteString
conduitThatGetsStuff = ...

conduitThatProcessesStuff :: Conduit ByteString IO RealThing
conduitThatProcessesStuff =
  CL.mapM (\bs -> 
    case parseFromByteString bs of
      Left err ->
        throwIO err
      Right yesss ->
        pure yesss
  .| convertSomeThing
  .| CL.filter someFilterCondition

passThrough :: (a -> IO ()) -> Conduit a IO a
passThrough action = CL.mapM (\a -> do
  action a
  pure a)

conduitThatConsumesStuff :: Consumer RealThing IO ()
conduitThatConsumesStuff =
  passThrough print
  .| passThrough makeHttpPost
  .| CL.mapM_ saveToDatabase

We have a bunch of small, decomposed things. Our conduitThatProcessesStuff doesn’t care where it gets the ByteStrings that it parses – you can hook it up to anything. Databases, HTTP calls, file IO, or even just CL.sourceList [example1, example2, example3].

Likewise, the conduitThatConsumesStuff doesn’t care where the RealThings come from. You can use CL.sourceList to provide a bunch of fake input.

We’re not usually working directly with Conduits here, either – most of the functions are provided to CL.mapM_ or CL.filter or That allows us to write functions that are simple a -> m b or a -> Bool or a -> b, and these are really easy to test.

Plain ol’ abstraction

Always keep in mind the lightest and most general techniques in functional programming:

  1. Make it a function
  2. Abstract a parameter

These will get you very, very far.

Let’s revisit the doWork business up top:

doWork :: App ()
doWork = do
  query <- runHTTP getUserQuery
  users <- runDB (usersSatisfying query)
  for_ users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    let result = compute thing
    runRedis (writeKey (userRedisKey user) result)

We can make this abstract by taking concrete terms and making them function parameters. The literal definition of lambda abstraction!

    :: Monad m
    => m Query -- ^ The HTTP getUserQuery
    -> (Query -> m [User]) -- ^ The database action
    -> (User -> m Thing) -- ^ The getSomething function
    -> (RedisKey -> Result -> m ()) -- ^ finally, the redis action
    -> m ()
doWorkAbstract getUserQuery getUsers getSomething redisAction = do
  query <- getUserQuery
  users <- getUsers
  for_ users $ \user -> do
    thing <- getSomething user
    let result = compute thing
    redisAction (userRedisKey user) result

There are some interesting things to note about this abstract definition:

  1. It’s parameterized over any monad. Identity, State, IO, whatever. You choose!
  2. We have a pure specification of the effect logic. This can’t do anything. It just describes what to do, when given the right tools.
  3. This is basically dependency injection on steroids.

Given the above abstract definition, we can easily recover the concrete doWork by providing the necessary functions:

doWork :: App ()
doWork = 
    (runHTTP getUserQuery)
    (\query -> runDB (usersSatisfying query))
    (\user -> getSomething user)
    (\key result -> runRedis (writeKey key result))

We can also easily get a testing variant that logs the actions taken:

doWorkScribe :: Writer [String] ()
doWorkScribe = 
  doWorkAbstract getQ getUsers getSomething redis
    getQ = do
      tell ["getting users query"]
      pure AnyUserQuery
    getUsers _ = do
      tell ["getting users"]
      pure [exampleUser1, exampleUser2]
    getSomething u = do
      tell ["getting something for " <> show u]
      pure (fakeSomethingFor u)
    redis k v = do
      tell ["wrote k: " <> show k]
      tell ["wrote v: " <> show v]

All without having to fuss about with monad tranformers, type classes, or anything else that’s terribly complicated.


Ultimately, this is all about decomposition of programs into their smallest, most easily testable parts. You then unit or property test these tiny parts to ensure they work together. If all the parts work independently, then they should work together when composed.

Your effects should ideally not be anywhere near your business logic. Pure functions from a to b are ridiculously easy to test, especially if you can express properties.

If your business logic really needs to perform effects, then try the simplest possible techniques first: functions and abstractions. Ultimately, I believe that it’s simpler and easier to write and test functions that take pure values. These are agnostic to where the data comes from, and don’t need to be mocked at all. This transformation is typically easier than introducing mtl classes, monad transformers, Eff, or similar techniques.

What if I need to?

Sometimes, you really just can’t avoid testing effectful code. A common pattern I’ve noticed is that people want to make things abstract at a level that is far too low. You want to make the abstraction as weak as possible, to make it easy to mock.

Consider the common case of wanting to mock out the database. This is reasonable: database calls are extremely slow! Implementing a mock database, however, is an extremely difficult task – you essentially have to implement a database. Where the behavior of the database differs from your mock, then you’ll have test/prod mismatch that will blow up at some point.

Instead, go a level up – create a new indirection layer that can be satisfied by either the database or a simple to implement mock. You can do this with a type class, or just by abstracting the relevant functions concretely. Abstracting the relevant functions is the easiest and simplest technique, but it’s not unreasonable to also write:

data UserQuery
  = AllUsers
  | UserById UserId
  | UserByEmail Email

class Monad m => GetUsers m where
  runUserQuery :: UserQuery -> m [User]

This is vastly more tenable interface to implement that a SQL database! Let’s write our instances, one for the persistent library and another for a mock that uses QuickCheck’s Gen type:

instance MonadIO m => GetUsers (SqlPersistT m) where
  runUserQuery = selectList . convertToQuery

instance GetUsers Gen where
  runUserQuery query = 
    case query of
      AllUsers -> 
      UserById userId ->
        take 1 . fmap (setUserId userId) <$> arbitrary
      UserByEmail userEmail ->
        take 1 . fmap (setUserEmail userEmail) <$> arbitrary

Alternatively, you can just pass functions around manually instead of using the type class mechanism to pass them for you.